It is the policy of the State of West Virginia, in cooperation with other governmental agencies, public and private organizations, and the citizens of this state, to use reasonable means and measures to prevent harm from the effects of blasting to its property and citizens. Also, he or she may receive any federal funds, state funds or any other funds, and enter into cooperative agreements, for the reclamation of land affected by surface mining. As used in this article, unless used in a context that clearly requires a different meaning, the term:.
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SMCRA was a response to rapid expansion of surface coal mining in the late s and early s, the effort to create a national, uniform law that applied to surface mining of coal, and efforts to regulate the remediation of strip mined areas following coal extraction. Congress first attempted to create a strip coal mining Act in both and Those bills were vetoed by President Ford.
The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of is the culmination of a prolonged effort to enact a Federal program for the control of coal surface-mining operations. In this article, Ms. Kite first briefly describes the pre-existing regulatory scheme and the general outline of the Act.
SMCRA created two programs: one for regulating active coal mines and a second for reclaiming abandoned mine lands. SMCRA also created the Office of Surface Miningan agency within the Department of the Interiorto promulgate regulations, to fund state regulatory and reclamation efforts, and to ensure consistency among state regulatory programs. SMCRA grew out of a concern about the environmental effects of strip mining.
It is the federal agency entrusted with the implementation and enforcement of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of SMCRAwhich attached a per-ton fee to all extracted coal in order to fund an interest-accruing trust to be used for reclamation of abandoned mine lands,  as well as established a set environmental standards that mines must follow while operating, and achieve when reclaiming mined land, in order to minimize environmental impact. The Appalachian region covers 12 states and is headquartered in Pittsburgh. The Western division covers 9 states and is headquartered in Denver.
In my various positions, I have inspected mine sites in at least a dozen states and visited coal mines in nearly every state in this nation with active operations. I have had the opportunity to personally witness many of OSM's greatest successes as well as some of its failures. Like many of my colleagues in OSM, I grew up with coal.
Peabody Energy, headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri, is the world's largest private-sector coal company, with more than years of history. The company's coal products fuel 10 percent of all US electricity and 2 percent of worldwide electricity. A significant portion of the company's coal derives from surface mining, which involves disturbing overlying rock layers to expose and extract coal reserves.
The landmark legislation protects the water, land, and air of coal communities. It was won by a coalition of coal mine neighbors from across the country, including ranchers, farmers, and water users from across the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Work on the law spanned the s, with several unsuccessful bills introduced into Congress.
Please take this quick survey to tell us about what happens after you publish a paper. Many of the newest surface mines in the USA, at that time, were in the western portion of the nation. Individual states developed statewide programs that met or exceeded the requirements of SMCRA and, thus, obtained primacy over coal mine mining and reclamation within their boundaries as long as those regulatory conditions were maintained. Much information has been learned on the reclamation side of SMCRA, its regulations and state programs since its passage.